Dr. Derek Lumbard

Dr. Rachel Nygaard

Firearm & Violent Injury Research

Violent injury is a leading cause of death among young Americans and survivors of violent injury are at increased risk of reinjury and rehospitalization due to violence. Breaking this cycle of violence is the main goal for hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs). Our American College of Surgeons verified Level I trauma program was the first established in Minnesota and continues to be the premier center for the treatment and management of traumatic injury in the region. 

A major barrier to firearm research is the lack of ability to track patients across systems to assess repeat injury. In our cross-hospital collaboration, we found that repeat victims of firearm injury were treated at the second hospital system 31.5% of the time. In a study using data from the National Readmission Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, we found that 9.9% of assault-related firearm admissions had subsequent readmission within 90-days. New traumatic injury was the primary indication of hospitalization for 9% of these readmissions. In our single center study examining violent trauma recidivism, we found 9.8% of patients had repeat injury within a range of 2.4 to 4.1 years. When examining firearm trauma recidivism across hospital systems, we found an average time to repeat firearm injury was 7.7 years (range: 7 months to 12 years). In our focused review of firearm violence, we found that repeat victims of firearm injury were at significant risk of mortality, a risk that increased with each subsequent admission. 

Ongoing and recently completed projects we would like to highlight

Lumbard DC, Richardson CJ, Nygaard RM. Understanding self-inflicted firearm injuries through prior hospitalizations. Abstract submitted to national conference.

Lumbard DC, Nygaard RM. Increased assault-related penetrating injuries at the epicenter of social unrest during global health emergency: a spatio-temporal analysis. Abstract accepted to World Trauma Congress 2023.

Chung TJ, Peter L, Moon E, Winkelman T, Bodurtha P, Nygaard RM, Lumbard DC. Long-term outcomes following discharges against medical advice after penetrating trauma. Abstract submitted to national conference.

Lumbard D.C, Nygaard RM, Richardson CJ, Nicholson SE. Readmissions following pediatric accidental firearm injury: an examination of the national readmission database. Podium presentation, Pediatric Trauma Society, Portland, OR. November 2022.

Lumbard, D.C, Richardson C.J, Endorf F.W, Nygaard, R.M. Firearm injury is only the beginning: the impact of socioeconomic factors on unplanned readmission after injury. Podium presentation, AAST, Chicago IL September 2022. Submitted manuscript.

Lumbard D.C, West M, Cich I, Shankar S, Hassan S, Nygaard RM.  Pooled analysis of level 1 trauma centers better predicts risk factors for gun violence. Podium presentation, Military City USA Trauma Collaborative Research Conference, San Antonio, TX, October 17, 2021. Submitted manuscript.